Programs aren't very interesting when they only do one thing. We like programs to be multi-purposed and to accept inputs. In order to accomplish this we need some sort of control that allows us to switch on data.
The if statement
If statements allow us to do something conditionally.
if (condition): print('do something if our condition is true')
The if statement uses the reserved word
if and then has parentheses which
contain a condition. Only boolean values can go inside the parentheses. If that
True, then the command(s) that are inside the if statement will be
The if statement has a colon after the parentheses which indicates that a block is going to follow. The contents of the block are indented in Python. It is important that this indentation is consistent. If you indent your blocks by a single tab, then you must always do this. If you use four spaces then you must similarly always use 4 spaces. When you want to end the block then you simply go back to the indentation level you were at before the if.
if (True): print("I'm inside the if") print("I'm outside the if")
Try creating your own if statement!
Sometimes we want to do something when a condition is
True and something else
when it is false. An else block allows you to switch on conditions like this:
happy = True if (happy): print("clap your hands") else: print("stomp your feet")
You can also switch on multiple conditions using an
elif (else if) statement.
elif is just like an
if but comes after an initial
mood = 'Grumpy' if (mood == 'Morose'); print("We should be friends") elif (mood == 'Grumpy'): print("Don't be coming around me") else: print("I guess I don't recognize your mood")
You can imagine more complex conditions where multiple variables come into play
age = 11 mood = 'Grumpy' family_member = True if (mood == 'Morose' and age > 10 or family_member); print("We should be friends")
The above condition uses
or to combine multiple conditions. When you
say the whole statement out loud you can tell what should happen. In this case
mood must be equal to
age must be greater than 10. Since
that combined condition is
False we would not enter the if block. We have a
third condition though. The
family_member condition is also part of this and
since there is an
or combining the previous two conditions and this one, only
one or the other is necessary to enter the block. Since
True we will enter.
Try collecting some data from the user (input) and doing an if statement based on their response!
You might look at the
== and wonder how they are different. The single
= is used as the assignment operator. This operator assigns variables on the
left of the sign to the value of whatever expression is on the right. The
operator is used to express boolean conditions. The two operands in this case
must be exactly equal to be evaluated as True.
42 == "42" may look like they
are equal but they have different types. One is an
int and the other is a
str. Things can never be equal if they are of different types.